No (1) is simply 24 segments of different colours, cut to 15 degrees and glued, this can easily be varied like 12 segments at 30 degrees, personally I’d suggest making a jig to hold the wood, some of the mitre fences on cheaper saws are not particularly accurate or easy to control when handling small pieces, also preferred is a sanding table, as the cut from a saw may not be good enough for a good glue joint.
No (2) and (3) are simply turned as solids, with shapes to suit personal taste. But item (2) should have a weighted base to avoid accidents.
No (4) is easiest cut with either a table saw or band-
No. (5), (6), (7), are simply spindle turned, on item (7) right picture, the centre is shown hollowed out, this is to reduce the weight of the top section if there is any likely hood of it being top heavy and easy to knock over, for me stability is the primary concern when turning anything which could result in a fire